Presentation on theme: "Eight essential guidelines to critical and creative thinking."— Presentation transcript:
1 Eight essential guidelines to critical and creative thinking.
Critical ThinkingEight essential guidelines to critical and creative thinking.
2 Eight guidelines:. Ask questions; be willing to wonder
Eight guidelines: * Ask questions; be willing to wonder. * Define your terms. * Examine the evidence. * Analyze assumptions and biases. * Avoid emotional reasoning. * Don’t oversimplify. * Consider other interpretations. * Tolerate uncertainty.
3 Factors that enhance critical thinking.
Simply observe and promote guidelines as outlined on the previous slide, e.g., ask questions, clearly define your terms, examine all of the evidence, look at your assumptions and biases, try not to reason with emotion, don’t oversimplify problems, consider alternative explanations, and try to tolerate uncertainty.
4 Barriers to critical thinking
ConformityDiffusion or not taking responsibilityGroupthinkCoercive persuasionPrejudice and ethnocentric thinkingStereotypingPre-existing mindsetAnd, the absence of awareness of the eight essential guidelines as outlined earlier.
Presentation on theme: "8 Basic Guidelines to Critical Thinking in Psychology Mrs. Whittemore Westford Academy."— Presentation transcript:
2 8 Basic Guidelines to Critical Thinking in Psychology Mrs. Whittemore Westford Academy
3 Ask Questions Think creatively Be curious about human behavior Wonder why people act as they do Question received explanations and search for new ones
4 Define the Problem Use clear and concrete terms Be careful how you word questions
5 Examine the evidence 1. Is it reliable? Is it valid? 2. Is it personal speculation or scientific? 3. Does it come from a few narrow studies or repeated research? 4. Can one check the reliability of the evidence?
6 Analyze biases and assumptions Examine your own personal prejudice or deeply held values that might affect evaluation of data Be willing to consider evidence that contradicts your own beliefs Examine the biases of others and their motives
7 Avoid emotional reasoning Emotion and passion have a place in motivating us to defend unpopular ideas or to think boldly BUT Feeling should not substitute for careful appraisal of arguments and evidence Avoid thinking: “If I feel this way it must be true”
8 Do NOT oversimplify Look beyond the obvious Watch out for logical contradictions Be wary of arguments backed up by anecdote Avoid either-or thinking
9 Consider other interpretations Examine other hypotheses to explain the problem before leaping to a conclusion Find the explanation that accounts for the MOST evidence with the fewest assumptions Don’t draw premature conclusions about cause and effect
10 Tolerate uncertainty This is the hardest step Be willing to give up old ideas and beliefs when NEW information calls these ideas into question
11 NOW GO OUT AND THINK LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST!